A neurological problem that can affect all ages
Roughly every 40 seconds, someone in the United States has a stroke. People of all ages are vulnerable, despite seemingly good health. In fact, the risk of stroke is increasing faster in individuals ages 30-45 than in any other age group.
Because people that have a stroke are at a higher risk of having another one, it’s important to know the signs and be able to recognize a stroke. Emergency treatment may be able to reverse a stroke.
Ascension Via Christi Comprehensive Stroke Center is a life-saving resource for patients and hospitals throughout Kansas. We are certified by the Joint Commission — an independent accrediting organization — as a Comprehensive Stroke Center, a recognition that reflects our expert care, advanced capabilities and positive stroke recovery outcomes.
What are the symptoms of a stroke?
Symptoms of stroke include:
- Weakness or numbness of the face, arm, or leg, usually on one side of the body
- Having trouble speaking or understanding
- Problems with vision, such as dimness or loss of vision in one or both eyes
- Dizziness or problems with balance or coordination
- Problems with movement or walking
- Fainting (loss of consciousness) or seizure
- Severe headaches with no known cause, especially if they happen suddenly
Other less common symptoms of stroke may include:
- Sudden nausea or vomiting not caused by a viral illness
- Brief loss or change of consciousness, such as fainting, confusion, seizures, or coma
- TIA, called a mini-stroke
A TIA can cause many of the same symptoms as a stroke. But TIA symptoms are passing. They can last for a few minutes or up to 24 hours. Call for medical help right away if you think someone is having a TIA. It may be a warning sign that a stroke is about to occur. But not all TIAs are followed by a stroke.
Call 911 if you experience any of these symptoms. Some people may have only one symptoms; others may have several. Don’t ignore the warning signs, even if they go away. Note the time the symptoms began. This will be critical in determining treatment.
Remember the acronym FAST:
- Face: Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop?
- Arms: Ask the person to hold both arms up evenly. Does one arm drift downward?
- Speech: Ask the person to repeat a single sentence. Are his/her words slurred or mixed up?
- Time: If the person shows any of these symptoms, call 911 immediately! Call even if the symptom goes away. Make note of the time the symptoms first appeared.
Modifiable stroke risk factors at any age:
- High blood pressure. Blood pressure of 140/90 or higher can damage blood vessels (arteries) that supply blood to the brain.
- Heart disease. Heart disease is the second most important risk factor for stroke, and the major cause of death among survivors of stroke. Heart disease and stroke have many of the same risk factors.
- Diabetes. People with diabetes are at greater risk for a stroke than someone without diabetes.
- Smoking. Smoking almost doubles your risk for an ischemic stroke.
- Birth control pills (oral contraceptives)
- History of TIAs (transient ischemic attacks). TIAs are often called mini-strokes. They have the same symptoms as stroke, but the symptoms don’t last. If you have had one or more TIAs, you are almost 10 times more likely to have a stroke than someone of the same age and sex who has not had a TIA.
- High red blood cell count. A significant increase in the number of red blood cells thickens the blood and makes clots more likely. This raises the risk for stroke.
- High blood cholesterol and lipids. High cholesterol levels can contribute to thickening or hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) caused by a buildup of plaque. Plaque is deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, and calcium. Plaque buildup on the inside of the artery walls can decrease the amount of blood flow to the brain. A stroke occurs if the blood supply is cut off to the brain.
- Lack of exercise
- Excessive alcohol use. More than 2 drinks per day raises your blood pressure. Binge drinking can lead to stroke.
- Illegal drugs. IV (intravenous) drug abuse carries a high risk of stroke from blood clots (cerebral embolisms). Cocaine and other drugs have been closely linked to strokes, heart attacks, and many other cardiovascular problems.
- Abnormal heart rhythm. Some types of heart disease can raise your risk for stroke. Having an irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation) is the most powerful and treatable heart risk factor of stroke.
- Cardiac structural abnormalities. Damaged heart valves (valvular heart disease) can cause long-term (chronic) heart damage. Over time, this can raise your risk for stroke.
Uncontrollable risk factors
- Older age. For each decade of life after age 55, your chance of having a stroke more than doubles.
- Race. African Americans have a much higher risk for death and disability from a stroke than whites. This is partly because the African-American population has a greater incidence of high blood pressure.
- Gender. Stroke occurs more often in men, but more women than men die from stroke.
- History of prior stroke. You are at higher risk for having a second stroke after you have already had a stroke.
- Heredity or genetics. The chance of stroke is greater in people with a family history of stroke.
Other risk factors include:
- Where you live. Strokes are more common among people living in the southeastern U.S. than in other areas. This may be because of regional differences in lifestyle, race, smoking habits, and diet.
- Temperature, season, and climate. Stroke deaths occur more often during extreme temperatures.
- Social and economic factors. There is some evidence that strokes are more common among low-income people.